GridlockWhy Global Cooperation is Failing when We Need It Most
The issues that increasingly dominate the 21st century cannot be solved by any single country acting alone, no matter how powerful. To manage the global economy, prevent runaway environmental destruction, reign in nuclear proliferation, or confront other global challenges, we must cooperate. But at the same time, our tools for global policymaking - chiefly state-to-state negotiations over treaties and international institutions - have broken down. The result is gridlock, which manifests across areas via a number of common mechanisms. The rise of new powers representing a more diverse array of interests makes agreement more difficult. The problems themselves have also grown harder as global policy issues penetrate ever more deeply into core domestic concerns. Existing institutions, created for a different world, also lock-in pathological decision-making procedures and render the field ever more complex. All of these processes - in part a function of previous, successful efforts at cooperation - have led global cooperation to fail us even as we need it most. Ranging over the main areas of global concern, from security to the global economy and the environment, this book examines these mechanisms of gridlock and pathways beyond them. It is written in a highly accessible way, making it relevant not only to students of politics and international relations but also to a wider general readership.
Figures viii Boxes and Tables x Abbreviations xii Preface xvii Introduction 1 The Postwar Legacy 4 Overview 9 1 Gridlock 14 Building the Postwar Order 18 Explaining the Postwar Order: Hegemony versus Institutions 21 The Effect of the Postwar Order: Self-Reinforcing Interdependence 25 Roads to Gridlock 34 Conclusion 48 2 Security 49 Introduction 49 CHANGES IN THE NATURE AND FORM OF SECURITY 51 The Interstate System 51 Postwar Developments: From the UN to the Cold War 55 Institutional Developments and Successes 65 Shifting Principles of Global Order 72 Post-9/11 Global Security 81 GRIDLOCK: DYNAMICS OF INSTITUTIONAL DEFICIT AND MALFUNCTION 84 The UN Security Council and the Disarmament Regime 85 Complex Intermestic Issues 93 Paradigm Shift or Realist Status Quo? 105 Conclusion 112 3 Economy 113 Introduction 113 THE EVOLUTION OF GLOBAL ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE 116 The Imperial System and Its Demise 116 Bretton Woods and the Creation of Multilateral Economic Institutions 120 Self-Reinforcing Interdependence and the End of Bretton Woods 130 GRIDLOCK IN GLOBAL ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE 152 Gridlock in Multilateral Trade Negotiations 154 Gridlock in Global Financial Governance 162 Global Financial Governance Reform 171 Conclusion: A Reembedded Global Market? 182 4 Environment 189 Introduction: A Zanjera for the Globe? 189 GLOBALIZATION OF THE COMMONS AND PARTIAL GLOBALIZATION OF THEIR MANAGEMENT 193 Industrial Globalization and the Origins of Modern Environmental Governance 194 Postwar Internationalization 198 The Modern Environmental Movement 201 An Environmental “Bretton Woods”? The Stockholm Compromise and UNEP 206 Early Successes, Lingering Challenges 215 A New Foundational Moment? From Compromise to Gridlock at Rio 226 ENVIRONMENTAL GRIDLOCK 232 Self-Reinforcing Interdependence and the Global Environment 232 Forests 237 Climate Change 251 Conclusion: Increasingly Linked Problems, Increasingly Fragmented Governance 269 5 Beyond Gridlock? 273 From Self-Reinforcing Interdependence to Gridlock 276 Trends toward Deepening Gridlock 279 National Trends and Gridlock 286 The Changed Global Landscape 296 Pathways through Gridlock 300 Politics beyond Gridlock 306 Notes 312 References 319 Index 350
"A must-read for those thinking about a better global governance."Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the World Trade Organization"Their book is convincing, well written, and sobering."Perspectives on Politics"International institutions are less and less able to solve global problems even as we need them more and more. Gridlock offers a lucid and concise set of explanations for the dysfunction we observe across the security, economic, and environmental arenas. Best of all, by identifying systemic patterns of failure and the underlying causes, the authors are able to put forward a useful set of practical solutions. A great read for policymakers and experts."Anne-Marie Slaughter, Princeton University"There is no shortage of books that make the case for global cooperation; this one explains why we are not getting it. Ranging over international security, the global economy, and the environment, this excellent and sensible book elucidates why our global commons is becoming increasingly unmanageable, as a result in part of the very success of the post-war international system."Dani Rodrik, Harvard University"An eye-opening and encouraging book. Not only does it present an analysis of why global cooperation is failing, but it also offers pathways out of gridlock."Ulrich Beck, University of Munich"In Gridlock, Thomas Hale, David Held, and Kevin Young offer an ambitious and sweeping treatment of contemporary global issues that combines sociology, political economy, and international relations."Peter M. Haas, University of Massachusetts Amherst"It is an accessible, pleasant read thanks to its eloquent prose and remarkable storytelling."Global Policy
Thomas Hale is a postdoctoral research fellow at the Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford. David Held is master of University College and professor of politics and international relations at Durham University Kevin Young is assistant professor of political science at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
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