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Diagnostics to Pathogenomics of Sexually Transmitted Infections


Diagnostics to Pathogenomics of Sexually Transmitted Infections


1. Aufl.

von: Sunit Kumar Singh

Fr. 207.00

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 19.09.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781119380900
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 416

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Beschreibungen

Comprehensively explores sexually transmitted diseases, from epidemiology, causative pathogens, clinical impact, and immunology, to management strategies utilizing new strategies of genomics and next-generation diagnostic tools Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are very common worldwide. More than 20 different STIs have been identified, and about 19 million men and women are infected each year in the United States alone. This book looks at the complete picture of common STIs— how they form, evolve, and transmit, as well as how they can be treated and managed with modern techniques, medicines, and tools. Diagnostics to Pathogenomics of Sexually Transmitted Infections runs the spectrum of discussion ranging from introduction of causative pathogen, their pathogenesis to epidemiology, immunology, to anatomy and physiology of human genitalia and management strategies. The book offers in-depth chapter coverage on effect of probiotics on reproductive health; mucosal immunity in sexually transmitted infections; the role of circumcision in preventing STIs; Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); genital herpes; molluscum contagiosum; genital warts; chlaymydia trachomatis; donovanosis; gonorrhoea; treponematoses; genital mycoplasms; bacterial vaginosis; vulvovaginal candidiasis; chlaymydia; scabies; chancroid, yeast infections; and more. Comprehensively compiles most of the major sexually transmitted infections Presents updated information on clinical aspects of sexually transmitted infections Examines the priorities in pathogenesis of human sexually transmitted infections and discusses new strategies of genomics and next-generation diagnostic tools used for detection of such pathogens Explores the future of rapid molecular diagnostic techniques and the challenges posed in the diagnosis of human STIs Includes bench to bedside content that will appeal to both basic and clinical researchers By offering the latest knowledge about recent advances in sexually transmitted infections in an interdisciplinary fashion, Diagnostics to Pathogenomics of Sexually Transmitted Infections is the perfect book for virologists, microbiologists, infectious disease experts, vaccinologists, biomedical researchers, clinicians, pharmacologists, and public health specialists.
About the Editor xv Contributors xvii Preface xxi 1 Mucosal Immunity in Sexually Transmitted Infections 1Jiri Mestecky and Michael W. Russell 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Innate Immunity in the Genital Tract 2 1.2.1 Humoral Defense Factors in Female Secretions 2 1.2.2 Innate Defense Factors in the Male Tract 4 1.3 Immunoglobulins in Secretions of the Genital Tract 4 1.3.1 Female Genital Tract Secretions 4 1.3.2 Origin of Igs in Human Genital Tract Secretions 7 1.3.3 Functions of Genital Tract Antibodies 8 1.4 Cells of the Mucosal Immune System of the Genital Tract 10 1.4.1 Epithelial Cells 10 1.4.2 Immunoglobulin?Producing Cells 10 1.4.3 T Cells and Other Cell Types 11 1.5 Induction of Immune Responses in the Genital Tract 12 1.5.1 Induction of Humoral Immune Responses in Human Male Genital Tract Secretions 14 1.5.2 Immune Responses in the Genital Tract after Infections 15 1.5.2.1 Gonorrhea 15 1.5.2.2 Chlamydia 15 1.5.2.3 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) 16 1.5.2.4 Human Papilloma Virus 16 1.6 Concluding Remarks 17 References 17 2 The Role of Circumcision in Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections 27Kourosh Afshar, Behnam Kazemi, and Andrew E. MacNeily 2.1 Introduction 27 2.2 Biological Mechanisms 27 2.3 Methods of Circumcision 28 2.4 Complications 28 2.5 Role of MC in Transmission of HIV 29 2.5.1 Male?to?Female Transmission 29 2.5.2 Female?to?Male Transmission 29 2.5.3 Male?to?Male Transmission 30 2.6 Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) 30 2.7 Nonulcerative STIs 31 2.7.1 Gonorrhea 31 2.7.2 Trichomonas Vaginalis (Tv) 32 2.7.3 Chlamydia Trachomatis (Ct) 32 2.8 Ulcerative STIs/Genital Ulcer Disease (GUD) 32 2.8.1 Syphilis 33 2.8.2 Chancroid 34 2.9 Use of Male Circumcision as a Public Health Measure 34 2.10 Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) 35 References 36 3 Effect of Probiotics on Reproductive Health 41Piotr Kochan, Magdalena Strus, and Piotr B. Heczko 3.1 Introduction 41 3.2 Definition of Probiotics 43 3.3 Vaginal Microflora (Microbiota) 46 3.4 Applications of Probiotics in Vaginal and Reproductive Health 49 3.4.1 Vaginitis (Aerobic Vaginitis (AV), Bacterial Vaginosis (BV), and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC)) 50 3.4.2 UTI 52 3.4.3 Pregnancy 52 3.4.4 Other Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/GYN) Uses of Probiotics 53 3.5 Conclusions 53 References 54 4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection 61Santosh Kumar Singh and Sunit K. Singh 4.1 Introduction 61 4.2 HIV Structure/Genome 62 4.3 Routes of Transmission 64 4.3.1 Sexual Transmission 64 4.3.1.1 STDs and Sexual Transmission of HIV 64 4.3.1.2 Vulnerability of Female Genital Tract for HIV Transmission 66 4.3.2 Transmission by Contaminated Blood/Blood Product Transfusion 68 4.3.3 Transmission by Sharing Syringe and Needles 68 4.3.4 Transmission from Mother to Fetus or Newborn Babies 68 4.3.5 Occupational Risk in Healthcare Workers 68 4.4 Host Factors Influencing HIV Infectivity in Sexual Transmission 69 4.4.1 Systemic Host Factors 69 4.4.2 Local Host Factors 69 4.5 Viral Factors Influencing HIV Infectivity in Sexual Transmission 70 4.6 Mechanism of Pathogenesis 71 4.7 Diagnosis of HIV Infections 72 4.8 Therapeutics 73 4.8.1 Antiretroviral Therapies (ARTs) 73 4.8.2 Combinational ARTs 74 4.9 Conclusion 74 References 75 5 Genital Herpes 83Andreas Sauerbrei 5.1 Introduction 83 5.2 Pathogen 83 5.3 Epidemiology 84 5.4 Pathogenesis and Immunity 84 5.5 Clinical Features 86 5.6 Diagnosis 87 5.7 Treatment 90 5.8 Prevention and Control 93 5.9 Conclusion 94 References 95 6 Molluscum Contagiosum 101Tugba Kevser Uzuncakmak and Ayse Serap Karadag 6.1 Introduction 101 6.2 Epidemiology 101 6.3 Molecular Pathogenesis 102 6.4 Diagnosis 103 6.5 Clinical Features 106 6.6 Mode of Spread of Infections 107 6.7 Treatment 107 6.7.1 Treatment Options 108 6.7.1.1 Watchful Waiting 108 6.7.1.2 Procedure?Based Treatments 109 6.7.1.3 Chemical Agents 110 6.7.1.4 Immune Modulators 111 6.7.1.5 Antiviral Agents 112 6.7.1.6 Immunocompromised Patients 112 6.8 Conclusion 113 References 113 7 Genital Warts 119Filip Rob 7.1 Introduction 119 7.2 Human Papillomavirus 119 7.2.1 Taxonomy 119 7.2.2 Life Cycle 120 7.2.3 Interaction with Immune System 120 7.2.4 Transmission 120 7.2.5 Clearance 120 7.3 Epidemiology 121 7.4 Risk and Protective Factors 121 7.4.1 Risk Factors 121 7.4.2 Protective Factors 122 7.5 Clinical Features 122 7.5.1 Physical Signs 122 7.5.2 Symptoms 123 7.6 Diagnostics 124 7.6.1 Clinical Investigation 124 7.6.2 3–5% Acetic Acid 124 7.6.3 Histopathology 124 7.6.4 HPV DNA Detection 125 7.6.5 HPV Antibodies 125 7.7 Differential Diagnosis 125 7.8 Treatment 126 7.8.1 Cryotherapy 126 7.8.2 Laser Therapy (CO2 laser, Er:YAG laser) 127 7.8.3 Electrocautery 127 7.8.4 Surgical Excision 127 7.8.5 Trichloracetic Acid (80–90% solution) 127 7.8.6 Podophyllotoxin (0.05% solution or 0.15% gel) 127 7.8.7 Imiquimod (3.75% or 5% cream) 127 7.8.8 Sinecatechins (10% or 15% ointment) 129 7.9 Specific Groups 129 7.9.1 Immunocompromised Patients 129 7.9.2 Pregnant Women 129 7.9.3 Children 129 7.10 HPV Vaccination 130 References 131 8 Chlamydia Trachomatis Urogenital Infections: Epidemiology, Clinical Presentations, and Pathogenesis 135Charles W. Armitage, Alison J. Carey, Danica K. Hickey, and Kenneth W. Beagley 8.1 Introduction 135 8.2 Epidemiology 135 8.3 Chlamydial Biology 136 8.3.1 The Attachment and Entry of Chlamydial EBs 136 8.3.2 The Chlamydial Inclusion 137 8.3.3 Chlamydial Replication and Persistence 137 8.4 Clinical Features 138 8.4.1 Urogenital Tract Infections 139 8.4.2 Female Urogenital Tract 139 8.4.3 Infection and Pregnancy 141 8.4.4 Male Urogenital Tract 142 8.4.5 Anorectal Tract Infections 143 8.4.6 Gastrointestinal Chlamydial Infections and Persistence 144 8.4.7 Lymphogranuloma Venereum 144 8.5 Pathogenesis of Chlamydial Infections 145 8.5.1 Pathogenesis of Female Genital Tract Chlamydial Infections 145 8.5.2 Lower FRT Pathogenesis 146 8.5.3 Upper FRT Pathogenesis 146 8.5.4 Pathogenesis of Male Urogenital Tract 148 8.5.5 Chlamydial Urethritis and Prostatitis 148 8.5.6 Chlamydial Infections of the Upper MRT 148 8.5.7 Chlamydial Epididymitis 149 8.5.8 Chlamydial Orchitis 149 8.6 Diagnosis and Treatment 150 8.7 Prevention and Control 151 8.8 Conclusion 152 References 153 9 Donovanosis 167Sarita Martins De Carvalho Bezerra, Marcio Martins Lobo Jardim, and Juliana Uchiyama 9.1 Introduction 167 9.2 Epidemiology 168 9.3 Pathology 168 9.4 Incubation Period 169 9.5 Clinical Pictures 170 9.6 Sites of Involvement 174 9.7 Complications and Sequelae 175 9.8 Diagnosis 175 9.9 Differential Diagnosis 176 9.10 Treatment 176 9.11 Prevention and Control 177 9.12 Disease Control and Prevention 178 References 178 10 Gonorrhea 181 María Teresa Pérez?Gracia and Beatriz Suay?García 10.1 Introduction 181 10.2 Pathogen 182 10.2.1 Morphology 182 10.2.2 Virulence Factors 183 10.2.2.1 Type IV Pili (Tfp) 183 10.2.2.2 Por Proteins 183 10.2.2.3 Opacity Proteins (Opa) 184 10.2.2.4 Rmp Proteins 184 10.2.2.5 Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) 184 10.2.2.6 IgA Protease 185 10.2.3 Physiology 185 10.2.4 Genome 185 10.3 Pathogenesis and Immunity 185 10.4 Epidemiology 186 10.5 Clinical Features 188 10.5.1 Gonococcal Infection in Men 188 10.5.2 Gonococcal Infection in Women 188 10.5.3 Extragenital Locations 188 10.6 Diagnosis 189 10.6.1 Samples 189 10.6.2 Staining 191 10.6.3 Culture 191 10.6.4 Identification 193 10.6.5 Neisseria gonorrhoeae Genotyping 193 10.6.6 Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) 197 10.7 Treatment 198 10.8 Prevention and Control 200 10.9 Conclusion 202 References 202 11 Sexually Transmitted Treponematoses 211Lenka Mikalová and David Šmajs 11.1 Introduction 211 11.2 Genetics of TPA and TEN Strains 212 11.3 Virulence Factors of Syphilis and Bejel 214 11.4 Diagnostics of Syphilis and Bejel 215 11.5 Treatment of Syphilis and Bejel 217 11.6 Molecular Typing of Syphilis and Bejel Treponemes 220 11.7 Vaccine Development for Syphilis and Bejel 222 References 223 12 Genital Mycoplasmas 233Suncanica Ljubin?Sternak 12.1 Introduction 233 12.2 Biology 234 12.3 Pathogenesis 235 12.3.1 Adhesion Proteins 236 12.3.2 Antigenic Variation 236 12.3.3 Production of Enzymes 236 12.3.4 Facultative Intracellular Localization 237 12.3.5 Capacity to Induce Host Immune Response 237 12.4 Epidemiology 237 12.5 Clinical Presentation 238 12.5.1 Urogenital Infections in Women 238 12.5.1.1 Bacterial Vaginosis 238 12.5.1.2 Cervicitis 239 12.5.1.3 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) and Its Sequalae 239 12.5.1.4 Infections in Pregnancy 240 12.5.2 Urogenital Infections in Men 241 12.5.2.1 Nongonococcal Urethritis (NGU) 241 12.5.2.2 Epididymitis and Prostatitis 241 12.5.2.3 Infertility 241 12.5.3 Rare Manifestations and Clinical Features in Immunocompromised Persons 242 12.5.3.1 Urinary Calculi 242 12.5.3.2 Systemic Infection and Arthritis 242 12.5.3.3 Infection in Immunocompromised Patients 242 12.6 Laboratory Diagnosis 243 12.6.1 Specimen Collection 243 12.6.2 Culture Methods 243 12.6.3 Molecular Methods 245 12.6.4 Serology 246 12.7 Treatment 247 12.8 Prevention and Control 248 References 249 13 Bacterial Vaginosis 257Aliona Rosca and Nuno Cerca 13.1 Introduction 257 13.2 Implication of G. vaginalis in Bacterial Vaginosis 258 13.3 Epidemiology and Risk Factors 260 13.4 Pathogenesis and Immunity 261 13.5 Clinical Features 263 13.6 Diagnosis 263 13.7 Treatment 266 13.8 Conclusions 268 References 268 14 Chancroid 277Margaret E. Bauer and Diane M. Janowicz 14.1 Introduction 277 14.2 Epidemiology of Chancroid and H. ducreyi 277 14.3 Clinical Features 278 14.4 The Pathogen 279 14.5 Pathogenesis and Immunity 280 14.5.1 Overview of Pathogenesis 280 14.5.2 Virulence Mechanisms 280 14.5.3 Regulation of Virulence 282 14.5.4 Immune Response 283 14.6 Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 284 14.7 Chronic Limb Ulcers Caused by H. ducreyi 285 14.8 Conclusions 286 References 287 15 Vulvovaginal Candidosis 293Gilbert G.G. Donders, Katerina S. Ruban, Gert Bellen, and Sivtrigaile Grinceviciene 15.1 Introduction 293 15.2 Etiology 293 15.2.1 Pathogens 293 15.2.2 Morphology 294 15.3 Epidemiology 294 15.3.1 Prevalence 294 15.3.1.1 Asymptomatic Colonization 294 15.3.1.2 Symptomatic Infection 295 15.3.2 Risk Factors 298 15.3.3 Sexual Transmission 298 15.3.4 Young and Elderly Women 298 15.4 Pathogenesis and Immunity 300 15.4.1 Hormones 300 15.4.2 Pregnancy 300 15.4.3 Impaired Glucose Tolerance 301 15.4.4 Genetic Predisposition 301 15.4.4.1 STAT1 Gain of Function Mutations 302 15.4.4.2 CARD9 302 15.4.4.3 AIRE Mutation 302 15.4.4.4 NALP3/CIAS1 304 15.4.4.5 Interleukin-4 304 15.4.4.6 Dectin-1 304 15.4.4.7 Mannose?Binding Lectin (MBL) 304 15.4.5 Other Factors Affecting Pathogenesis 305 15.5 Symptoms and Signs 305 15.5.1 Acute/Episodic Infection 305 15.5.2 Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidosis 306 15.6 Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis 306 15.6.1 Clinical Signs 306 15.6.2 Clinical Examination 306 15.6.3 Wet Mount Microscopy 307 15.6.4 Vaginal pH 309 15.6.5 Vaginal Mycological Culture 310 15.6.6 Molecular Biology 310 15.6.7 Histology 310 15.6.8 Differential Diagnosis 310 15.7 Treatment 311 15.7.1 General Principles of Treatment 311 15.7.2 Treatment of Uncomplicated Acute Infection 311 15.7.3 Treatment of Complicated Acute Infection 312 15.7.3.1 Severe Symptoms, C. albicans Vulvovaginitis 314 15.7.3.2 Non?Albicans Candida Infection 314 15.7.3.3 Poorly Controlled Diabetes, Immune Suppression 315 15.7.3.4 Pregnancy and Breastfeeding 315 15.7.4 Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (RVVC) 316 15.7.4.1 Azole?Resistant C. albicans 317 15.7.4.2 Elimination of Risk Factors of Recurrence in RVVC Patients 317 15.7.4.3 Underlying Reasons for Failing Maintenance Therapy 318 References 319 16 Tinea Cruris 329Anuradha Bishnoi and Rahul Mahajan 16.1 Introduction 329 16.2 Etiology and Epidemiology 330 16.3 Tinea Cruris as a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) 331 16.4 Transmission 331 16.5 Pathogenesis 332 16.5.1 Environmental Factors 332 16.5.2 Agent Factors 332 16.5.3 Host Factors 332 16.5.4 Host Immune Response 333 16.5.5 Clinical Features 333 16.5.6 Variants 335 16.5.6.1 Tinea incognito 335 16.5.6.2 Vesico?Bullous Tinea Cruris 335 16.5.6.3 White Paint Dots and Pseudomembranous Tinea 335 16.6 Differential Diagnoses 336 16.6.1 Candidiasis 336 16.6.2 Erythrasma 336 16.6.3 Hyperpigmented Pityriasis Versicolor 336 16.7 Laboratory Diagnosis 336 16.7.1 Direct Examination 336 16.7.2 Culture 337 16.7.3 Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests 337 16.8 Treatment of Tinea Cruris and Genitalis 337 16.8.1 Topicals 337 16.8.2 Systemic 337 16.8.3 Recalcitrant/Resistant Tinea: Pathomechanisms and Treatment 338 16.8.4 General Measures to Prevent Tinea Cruris 338 16.9 Conclusion 338 Acknowledgments 339 References 339 17 Trichomonas Vaginalis 341Barbara Van Der Pol 17.1 Introduction 341 17.2 Epidemiology of T. vaginalis 342 17.3 HIV and Trichomonas 344 17.4 Biology and Pathogenesis of T. vaginalis 345 17.5 Clinical Features of T. vaginalis Infection 346 17.6 Diagnosis of T. vaginalis 348 17.6.1 Laboratory Diagnosis 349 17.7 Treatment of T. vaginalis 350 17.8 Conclusion 351 References 351 18 Scabies 357Giuseppe Micali, Giorgia Giuffrida, and Francesco Lacarrubba 18.1 Introduction 357 18.2 Epidemiology 357 18.3 Etiopathogenesis 358 18.4 Clinical Features 359 18.5 Diagnosis 363 18.5.1 Microscopy 363 18.5.2 Dermatoscopy/Videodermatoscopy 363 18.5.3 Histopathology 365 18.5.4 Other Diagnostic Procedures 366 18.6 Treatment 366 18.6.1 Topical Agents 366 18.6.2 Oral Agents 367 18.6.3 Treatment for Crusted Scabies 367 18.7 Prevention and Control 368 18.8 Conclusion 368 References 368 Index 373
About the Editor Dr. Sunit K. Singh is Professor of Molecular Immunology and Head of the Molecular Biology Unit at the Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences (IMS), Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi, India.
Comprehensively explores sexually transmitted diseases, from epidemiology, causative pathogens, clinical impact, and immunology, to management strategies utilizing new strategies of genomics and next-generation diagnostic tools Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are very common worldwide. More than 20 different STIs have been identified, and about 19 million men and women are infected each year in the United States alone. This book looks at the complete picture of common STIs— how they form, evolve, and transmit, as well as how they can be treated and managed with modern techniques, medicines, and tools. Diagnostics to Pathogenomics of Sexually Transmitted Infections??runs the spectrum of discussion ranging from introduction of causative pathogen, their pathogenesis to epidemiology, immunology, to anatomy and physiology of human genitalia and management strategies. The book offers in-depth chapter coverage on the effects of probiotics on reproductive health; mucosal immunity in sexually transmitted infections; the role of circumcision in preventing STIs; Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); genital herpes; molluscum contagiosum; genital warts; chlaymydia trachomatis; donovanosis; gonorrhoea; treponematoses; genital mycoplasms; bacterial vaginosis; vulvovaginal candidiasis; chlaymydia; scabies; chancroid, yeast infections; and more. Comprehensively compiles most of the major sexually transmitted infections Presents updated information on clinical aspects of sexually transmitted infections Examines the priorities in pathogenesis of human sexually transmitted infections and discusses new strategies of genomics and next-generation diagnostic tools used for detection of such pathogens Explores the future of rapid molecular diagnostic techniques and the challenges posed in the diagnosis of human STIs Includes bench to bedside content that will appeal to both basic and clinical researchers By offering the latest knowledge about recent advances in sexually transmitted infections in an interdisciplinary fashion,??Diagnostics to Pathogenomics of Sexually Transmitted Infections??is the perfect book for virologists, microbiologists, infectious disease experts, vaccinologists, biomedical researchers, clinicians, pharmacologists, and public health specialists.

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