Violence in Europe

Violence in Europe

Historical and Contemporary Perspectives

von: Sophie Body-Gendrot, Pieter Spierenburg

CHF 153.50

Verlag: Springer
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 08.01.2008
ISBN/EAN: 9780387745084
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 256

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Sophie Body-Gendrot How much related are present and past violence? The answers are complex due to the limited knowledge scientists have gathered, even after spending a life-time studying this very enigmatic and most serious social phenomenon called violence. All authors agree that the present level of interpersonal violence cannot be sufficiently understood without taking the earlier long-term decrease into account. Ted Robert Gurr (1981, 1989) was one of these pioneers who und- took a statistical overview of the development of homicides from the Middle Ages to the present, looking at England in particular. On his curve, 20 ho- cides per 100,000 inhabitants were recorded in the High and Late Middle Ages and one case in the twentieth century put an end to the curb. Gurr interpreted this long-term decrease in interpersonal violence as ‘‘a manifestation of cultural change in Western society, especially the growing sensitization to violence and the development of an increased internal and external control on aggressive behavior’’ (Gurr, 1981:258). Currently, both the present and the past have to be considered in any attempt to answer the following questions: is the higher incidence of violence which still prevails a temporary exception or a new trend related to structural dynamics of modern societies? In which regions of Europe is it more specifically pronounced? More generally, this volume claims that historical knowledge of changes in violent behavior and of violence forms an indispensable contribution to an understanding of the manifestations of violence in contemporary societies.
Sophie Body-Gendrot
Part One: Contested Definitions
Pieter Spierenburg
Violence: Reflections About a Word
Willem de Haan
Violence as an Essentially Contested Concept
Part Two: Long-Term Trends
Dag Lindström
Homicide in Scandinavia: Long-Term Trends and Their Interpretations
François Ploux
Violence in France's Past: An Anthropological Approach
Ian O’Donnell
The Fall and Rise of Homicide in Ireland
Part Three: Contemporary Trends
Philippe Robert
Violence in Present-Day France: Data and Sociological Analysis
Sophie Body-Gendrot
From Old Threats to Enigmatic Enemies: The Evolution of European Policies from Low Intensity Violence to Homegrown Terrorism
Part Four: Gendering Violent Practices
Dorothea Nolde
The Language of Violence: Symbolic Body Parts in Marital Conflicts in Early Modern France
Kate O'Brien, Dick Hobbs, Louise Westmarland
Negotiating Violence and Gender: Security and the Night Time Economy in the UK
Part Five: Politics, War and Violence
Xavier Rousseaux, Frédéric Vesentini, Antoon Vrints
Violence and War: Measuring Homicide in Belgium, 1900-1950
Susanne Karstedt
Democratization and Violence: European and International Perspectives
Eric Dunning
Violence and Violence Control in Long-Term Perspective: Testing Elias in Relation to War, Genocide, Crime, Punishment and Sport
<p>With a Ph.D. in political science from the Institut d’Etudes Politiques and a B.A. and M.A. in American Studies from the University of Paris-Sorbonne, <b>Sophie Body-Gendrot</b> is a Professor of Political Science and of American studies at the Sorbonne, Paris. She founded the Center for Urban Studies (CEUMA). She is a researcher at the Centre de recherche sociologique sur le droit et les institutions pénales (CNRS-CESDIP-Dept of Justice) and an expert for the program Urban Age at the London School of Economics on safety and public space. She is also a member of the French Civilian Police Review Commission. She has wrote or co-edited more than fifteen books and over a hundred articles. The most recent works related to urban violence and public policies are <i>La peur détruira-t-elle la ville?</i> (<i>Will Fear Destroy the City?);</i> <i>Violence in Europe</i> (coedited with P. Spierenburg); <i>Sortir des banlieues: Pour en finir avec la tyrannie des territories</i> (<i>Getting Out of Inner-cities: Putting an End to Territorial Tyranny</i>); <i>Police et discriminations raciales: Le tabou français</i>; <i>La société américaine après le 11 septembre?</i>; <i>Villes: La fin de la violence?</i>; <i>The Social Control of Cities</i>; <i>Villes et violence</i>; and a chapter in <i>The Endless City</i> called "Confronting Fear."</p>
<P>Has violence changed over the centuries? Has it always held the same meanings for us?</P>
<P>Will it always be a given in society?</P>
<P>Taking the sociocultural long view, Violence in Europe analyzes the prevalence and role of violence—from street crime to terrorist attacks, homicide to genocide—in the evolution of human and national behavior. The editors and 14 colleagues in history, anthropology, sociology, and psychology focus on Northern and Western Europe, examining centuries of violent phenomena, from the cultural logic of the Middle Ages to today’s soccer riots and security alerts. The contributors’ examination of social constructions (honor codes, class and gender roles) and public ambivalence (acceptance, abhorrence, fascination) regarding violence sheds needed light on current dynamics in law enforcement, political systems, and what many have termed "the civilization of violence."</P>
<P>Findings from Britain, France, Ireland, Belgium, and Scandinavia explore:</P>
<LI>The paradoxes of ethnic violence and insider/outsider thinking in an increasingly multicultural world.</LI>
<LI>Trends in interpersonal violence during wartime and peacetime.</LI>
<LI>The gendering of violence, from early French marital laws to London’s underground nightlife.</LI>
<LI>The growth of cities: modernization, conflict, aggression.</LI>
<LI>Modern prevention and surveillance strategies: effective solutions, complicating the problem, or some middle ground? </LI>
<P>Reflecting innovative methods of research and interpretation, Violence in Europe is thought-provoking and instructive for researchers and students in psychology and criminology. And with the mounting global presence of violence today, this is reading with profound implications for the future. <BR><BR><BR></P>
<P><STRONG>"Any reader will appreciate the refreshing combination of theory and detail to be found here. Together with their collaborators Body-Gendrot and Spierenburg have produced a book that should be read by scholars, students and anybody interested in how violence transcends nations and cultures."</STRONG></P>
<P><STRONG>H.V. Savitch<BR>Brown and Williamson Distinguished Research Professor<BR>The University of Louisville</STRONG></P>
<P>Analyzes the prevalence and role of violence in the evolution of human and national behavior</P>
<P>Thought-provoking and instructive for researchers and students in psychology and criminology</P>

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